消除数据库漏洞泄密安全问题技巧

数据库因包含有各种有价值的敏感信息,例如金融或知识产权信息、公司数据、个人用户数据等等,一直是黑客攻击的目标,黑客企图通过破坏服务器、数据库来获利,因此,数据库安全测试是必不可少的。

黑客攻击公司的事件比比皆是,过去的几年中,Equifax,Facebook,雅虎,苹果,Gmail,Slack 和 eBay 都曾发生过数据泄露事。而这种情况也引发了企业对网络安全软件和 web 应用程序测试的需求,通过采用这些措施,黑客将被拒绝访问在线数据库中的可用记录和文档。另外,严格遵守 GDPR 有助于加强用户数据保护。

那么数据库驱动系统中常见的漏洞有哪些呢?我们总结了常见的十大漏洞以及消除这些漏洞的技巧。

消除数据库漏洞泄密安全问题技巧

▍部署前无安全测试

数据库被攻击最常见的原因之一就是在开发过程中部署阶段的疏忽。虽然为了确保高性能,企业可能进行了功能测试,但是这种类型的测试无法显示数据库是否正在执行不应该执行的操作。因此,在完全部署之前,使用不同类型的测试来测试网站安全性是非常重要的。

▍糟糕的加密与数据泄露密不可分

很多人都会把数据库视为后端部分,因此更多的是在关注 Internet 传播的威胁,但其实他们都忽略了数据库也是有网络接口的,如果软件安全性很差,黑客同样可以轻松跟踪这些接口。为了避免这种情况,使用 TLS 或 SSL 加密通信平台很重要。

▍虚弱的网络安全软件 = 破碎的数据库

Equifax 数据泄露事件,公司承认有 1.47 亿消费者的数据受到损害,造成的后果非常严重。这个案例证明了网络安全软件对于保护数据库的重要性。不过,大多数企业因为缺乏资源或时间原因不愿意进行用户数据安全测试,甚至也不为系统提供定期补丁,因此容易导致数据泄露。

▍数据库被盗

数据库一般有两种威胁:外部威胁和内部威胁。在某些情况下,内部威胁的严重程度甚至会超过外部威胁,因为无论企业使用什么样的安全软件都无法保证员工的忠诚度,任何有权访问敏感数据的人都有机会窃取它并将其出售给第三方组织以获取利润。但是,有一种方法可以消除风险:加密数据库档案,实施严格的安全标准,在违规情况下罚款,使用网络安全软件,并通过公司会议和个人咨询不断提高团队的意识。

▍功能中的缺陷成为了数据库安全问题

黑客可以利用数据库的功能缺陷进行攻击,通过破解合法凭据并强制系统运行任意代码。虽然这听起来有点复杂,但这是基于功能固有的缺陷,所以可以通过安全测试保护数据库免受第三方访问。此外,其功能结构越简单,确保对每个数据库功能进行良好保护的机会就越多。

▍弱而复杂的数据库基础架构

黑客通常不会一次控制整个数据库,他们会利用基础设施中存在的特殊弱点并将其用于自己的优势。安全软件无法完全保护系统免受此类操作。即使想要避免功能缺陷,就不要让整个数据库基础结构过于复杂。当它很复杂时,你有可能忘记或忽视检查和修复它的弱点。因此,重要的是每个部门保持相同的控制量并隔离系统以分散重点并降低可能的风险。

▍无限的管理访问 = 糟糕的数据保护

管理员和用户之间应该有明确的分工,确保团队是有限制性的访问,这样如果有用户试图窃取任何数据,那么也会因未参与数据库管理的过程而遇到更多困难。如果还可以限制用户帐户的数量,那就更好了,因为黑客也会在获得对数据库的控制权方面遇到更多问题。这种情况通常会发生在金融行业,他们不仅要关心谁有权访问敏感数据,还要在发布之前执行银行软件测试。

▍测试网站安全性以避免 SQL 注入

因为注入攻击应用程序,数据库管理员被迫清除插入到字符串中的恶意代码和变量。Web 应用程序安全测试和防火墙实施是保护面向 Web 数据库的最佳选择。不过,这对于在线业务来说是一个大问题,但对于移动业务来说却不是挑战,而对于只有移动版本的应用程序来说这是一个很大的优势。

 

▍密钥管理不足

对敏感数据进行加密是很重要的,但同样重要的是要注意谁可以访问密钥。由于密钥通常存储在硬盘上,因此对于想要窃取的人来说,这显然是一个容易攻击的目标。

▍数据库中的不规范

导致数据库漏洞的原因多种多样,因为需要测试网站安全性并定期进行数据保护。如果发现有任何差异,一定要尽快修复。而企业开发人员应该要了解可能会影响数据库的任何威胁。

虽然企业可能已经意识到要进行安全测试,但是仍有很多企业都无法实施,因为致命错误通常会出现在开发阶段,或者是应用程序集成期间、修补和更新数据库期间。

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